How coronavirus is affecting Brazil
9 July 2020
Brazil is the largest country in Latin America, rich in diversity and natural resources.
However, it is also one of the most unequal nations in the world and over 50 million Brazilians live in poverty. In recent years, the Brazilian government has made drastic cuts to health, education and housing that are affecting the poorest most of all.
Now, legal protection of human rights and the environment are being further undone while Brazil suffers from the coronavirus crisis. Brazil has over one million confirmed cases of coronavirus, making it the country with the second largest number of infections in the world.
Clare Dixon, CAFOD’s Head of Region for Latin America, tells us how local experts are helping Brazilians survive this crisis against a background of severe inequality.
What was the situation in Brazil before coronavirus hit?
Housing and rights to land are key issues in Brazil for the poor and indigenous communities we work with.
In urban slums, we have worked for many years with the local Church, community leaders and volunteers to fight for the right to safe homes for families. Having an address means you can get a regular job, send your children to school and access other government support.
In the Amazon, small-scale farmers and indigenous communities are at risk of losing their land. Mining, logging, cattle-ranching and soya production companies constantly invade protected rainforest and there are often violent clashes against the local population.
"There was already a healthcare emergency happening before coronavirus hit. Like elsewhere in Latin America, access to good healthcare in Brazil is based on wealth."
Clare Dixon, CAFOD's Head of Region for Latin America
There was already a healthcare emergency happening before coronavirus hit. Like elsewhere in Latin America, access to good healthcare in Brazil is based on wealth. Hospitals can be days away for indigenous communities, and visiting them can also be dangerous for this group, who often lack resistance to many common diseases.
How has the government responded to coronavirus?
The President of Brazil has ignored quarantine measures enforced by many state governments and new laws have been brought in to encourage businesses to go and exploit the Amazon. In April of this year, there was almost twice as much environmental destruction and logging in the Amazon as there was in April last year.
Local lockdowns are in place, but these measures to prevent the spread of coronavirus present a real challenge to poor families, who need to work in order to eat.
What challenges are there to surviving lockdown and fighting coronavirus?
Of course, if you're living in an overcrowded slum, or if you're an indigenous community where everybody lives communally, you don't have your own space. You share that space, so it’s very difficult to maintain your distance or stay in a quarantine.
But at the same time, if you're poor and living in a city like São Paulo, you can't afford not to go out on the streets – your survival is dependent on earning some money daily, to buy food.
"The situation in the Amazon is critical. The survival of many cultures and communities is under threat."
The situation in the Amazon is critical. The survival of many cultures and communities is under threat. There are only hundreds of thousands of indigenous people in Brazil but the infection rate among their communities is far higher than the general population. Past epidemics have shown how devastating respiratory illnesses can be for these groups.
How has CAFOD responded to coronavirus in Brazil?
In São Paulo we've been helping to give out essential food, facemasks and hygiene kits for vulnerable families living in slums and shanty-towns. Our local experts in the community have negotiated with local authorities so that they can send volunteers to deliver food to families in need and help them survive the lockdown. We’ve also given advice to these volunteers on social distancing, to keep them safe.
In the Amazon and in north-east Brazil, the local Church and community organisations have been supporting farmers to get their food to families on the edges of cities, so that urban families don't go hungry.
"Solidarity is something that is in the heart of the poorest and most vulnerable as well," Cecilia, from our Brazil team told me: "These people are donating the only source of income they have. So they may not have money to pay the bills, but they still can eat. And then they want to share this gift of nature with other people."
With the indigenous Amazon communities, we have provided:
- food supplies
- prevention information in local languages
- personal protective equipment (PPE).
We are also monitoring coronavirus cases and working with health officials to get people tested and treated where possible in their communities, reducing travel to a central hospital where risk of infection is high.
What gives you hope?
There’s so much to give us hope for a better world after coronavirus.
The people of Brazil are showing tremendous creativity in facing this challenge and continue to show inspiring community solidarity and support to one another.